Holistic Agriculture is an agricultural approach that was originally developed as a means of reversing desertification, but has been expanded to encompass any means of agriculture that recognises its place as part of the whole planetary ecosystem, and seeks to positively transform the ecosystem towards regeneration and health.
Biodiversity management of organic farming enhances agricultural sustainability, 中国科学院 (2016年4月)
Organic farming (OF) has been believed to be capable of curtailing some hazardous effects associated with chemical farming (CF). However, debates also exist on whether OF can feed a world with increasing human population.
Linking crop production with livestock to maximal uses of by-products from each production and avoid xenobiotic chemicals, we have achieved beneficial improvement in soil properties, effective pest and weed control, and increased crop yields. After eight years experiment, we have obtained a gradual but stable increase in crop yields with a 9.6-fold increase of net income. Thus, Biodiversity Management of Organic Farming can not only feed more population, but also increase adaptive capacity of agriculture ecosystems and gain much higher economic benefits.
Soil erosion and phosphorus losses under variable land use as simulated by the INCA-P model, ノルウェーの従来の農業環境研究所 (2013年3月)
The most favourable scenario for freshwater ecosystems would be afforestation: changing half of the agricultural areas to forest would reduce sediment and phosphorus losses by 44 and 40%, respectively.
Sustainability of holistic and conventional cattle ranching in the seasonally dry tropics of Chiapas, Mexico, ニューヨーク州立大学 (2012年9月)
Holistic ranchers have more pasture divisions, higher grazing pressure, greater lengths of time between pasture burns, greater milk productivity, larger forest reserves, lower cow and calf mortality, purchase less hay and feed, and use less herbicides and pesticides than their conventional neighbors.
We found higher soil respiration, deeper topsoil, increased earthworm presence, more tightly closed herbaceous canopies, and marginally greater forage availability in holistic ranches.
These complementary metrics combine to suggest that holistic management strategies are leading to greater ecological and economic sustainability.
Forest Gardens, ホリスティックサイエンスジャーナル (2011年)
Forest gardens are a type of land use common in many parts of the world, and fast becoming more popular in Britain, for growing a wide variety of edible and other crops in a sustainable and low-input system.
Forest garden and similar agroforestry systems offer a sustainable and low-carbon alternative for growing crops for people, which also protects the soil, stores carbon, and is excellent for wildlife. Oh yes, and forest gardens are very beautiful and being in them surely increases health too!
How Sustainable Agriculture Can Address the Environmental and Human Health Harms of Industrial Agriculture, ジョンズホプキンス大学 (2002年5月)
Hunger and food insecurity are currently problems not of resource scarcity but of insufficient political will or moral imperative to change the way food is allocated— Pinstrup-Anderson et al. have estimated that the developing world alone is producing enough food to provide every person with > 2,500 calories/day. If unsustainable agriculture remains the norm, however, scarcity of resources could soon become a major factor in food insecurity.
Sustainable agriculture is not merely a package of prescribed methods. More important, it is a change in mindset whereby agriculture acknowledges its dependence on a finite natural resource base—including the finite quality of fossil fuel energy that is now a critical component of conventional farming systems. It also recognizes that farm management problems (weeds, insects, etc.) cannot be dealt with in isolation but must be seen as part of a whole ecosystem whose balance must be maintained.
Plant People Speak - Indigenous Methods of Plant Harvesting, ホリスティックサイエンスジャーナル (2014年)
In an era of startling alienation from the soils, airs, waters, plants, and animals surrounding and sustaining us, [indigenous herbalists, healers, and wild-crafters] remind us that the embodied ecological knowledge of local peoples is deep in our blood and bones, though we may no longer feel it. By exploring and honouring the wisdom of our elders – both plants and people – we might begin to practice remembrance.
No-Till Case Study, Brown's Ranch: Improving Soil Health Improves the Bottom Line, NCAT (2012年10月)
Exceptional attention to soil health through the use of no-till farming, diverse cover crops, and intensive rotational cattle grazing have allowed Brown’s Ranch, a North Dakota farm and ranch, to become increasingly profitable. This publication relates details of a field tour with Gabe Brown, explaining his approach to soil management.
Holistic Approaches In Organic Farming Research And Development: A General Overview, 国際連合食糧農業機関
Organic farming seems to improve soil fertility in a way and to an extent which cannot be achieved by conventional farming even if the latter consistently respects some ecological principles.
- Attracting Beneficial Insects with Native Flowering Plants, ミシガン州立大学
Strategies to Enhance Beneficials, メリーランド大学
One of the most powerful and long-lasting ways to minimize economic damage from pests is to boost populations of existing or naturally occurring beneficial organisms by supplying them with appropriate habitat and alternative food sources. Beneficial organisms such as predators, parasites and pest-sickening “pathogens” are found far more frequently on diverse farms where fewer pesticides are used, than in monocultures or in fields routinely treated with pesticides.
Permaculture is a system based on emulating the patterns observed in natural ecosystems to to create sustainable, healthy, 'permanent agriculture'. Permaculture avoids the pitfalls of intensive, industrial farming, while offering a means of recovery to degraded soil.
世界を養い、癒す：再生農業とパーマカルチャーを通じて, レディング大学 (2012年12月)
Case Study: Jordan Valley Permaculture Project (2008年)
Conclusions: The results show that the application of Permaculture methods and introducing Permaculture techniques like swales, natural mulching, rainfall harvesting, legume cultivation, have a clear role in improving soil properties, increasing soil organic matter content and reducing soil salinity.
Full research paper here
中国のワタにおけるコナジラミの密度を減少させるトラップとバリア作付の可能性, 福建省農業大学 (2020年1月)
トウモロコシ間作は未成熟コナジラミの密度を24.2個体100 cm2から4.0個体100 cm2に減らしましたが、すべての処理は未成熟B.タバコ密度を大幅に減らすことに成功しました。これにより、収穫量が大幅に増加しました。
'植物トライアド'：昆虫植物の存在は有機キャベツアグロエコシステムにおけるトラップ作物植物に対する天然の敵の存在量を高める, ミズーリ大学 (2019年6月)
フランスのマリーゴールドと一緒に植えることは、空中のリモネンの放出を通して温室のコナジラミからトマト植物を保護します, ニューカッスル大学 (2019年3月)
被覆植物の混植によるキャベツ害虫の密度抑制効果, 宮城県農業・園芸総合研究所 (2008年4月)
春まきキャベッおよび秋まきキャベッ栽培において, 被覆植物として大麦およびヘアリーベッチを混植すると, モンシロチョウをはじめとする害虫密度が抑制され, 被害が著しく軽減された. 春まきでは大麦の混植による障壁効果とゴミムシ類による捕食により, 害虫被害が軽減されたと考えられる. 一方, 秋まきでも害虫密度は抑制され被害程度も軽減されたが, ヘアリーベッチ混植区と除草区ではゴミムシ類成虫の発生に大きな差がなかった. そのため, 秋まきキャベッの害虫密度抑制には捕食者としてのゴミムシ類の関与はほとんどなく, 被覆植物の障壁効果によるものが大きいと考えられる.
Intensive farming is a system that aims to maximize output and profit per acre through high-yield monocropping combined with the use of mechanical ploughing, chemical fertilizers, plant growth regulators or pesticides, and confining animals indoors. Though industrial farming has a higher output than traditional methods, it comes with deleterious side effects including environmental pollution, increasing erosion, poisoning water with agricultural chemicals, and adverse effects on animal welfare.
An acute exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide alters aromatase levels in testis and sperm nuclear quality, フランスのカーン大学 (2014年7月)
The major disruption is an increase of aromatase mRNA levels at least by 50% in treated rats at all times, as well as the aromatase protein.
Long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize, フランスのカーン大学 (2014年6月)
This report describes the first long-term (2-year) rodent (rat) feeding study investigating possible toxic effects arising from consumption of an R-tolerant GM maize(NK603)
Biochemical analyses confirmed very significant chronic kidney deficiencies, for all treatments and both sexes; 76% of the altered parameters were kidney-related. In treated males, liver congestions and necrosis were 2.5 to 5.5 times higher. Marked and severe nephropathies were also generally 1.3 to 2.3 times greater. In females, all treatment groups showed a two- to threefold increase in mortality, and deaths were earlier. This difference was also evident in three male groups fed with GM maize. All results were hormone- and sex-dependent, and the pathological profiles were comparable. Females developed large mammary tumors more frequently and before controls; the pituitary was the second most disabled organ; the sex hormonal balance was modified by consumption of GM maize and Roundup treatments. Males presented up to four times more large palpable tumors starting 600 days earlier than in the control group, in which only one tumor was noted. These results may be explained by not only the non-linear endocrine-disrupting effects of Roundup but also by the overexpression of the EPSPS transgene or other mutational effects in the GM maize and their metabolic consequences.
Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles, フランスのカーン大学 (2014年2月)
Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone.
We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines. 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone.
Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors, チュラポーン大学院大学 (2013年9月)
Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor.
These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity.
In vitro effect of the herbicide glyphosate on human blood platelet aggregation and coagulation, サンタカタリーナ連邦大学 (2010年1月)
The results demonstrate that Glyphosate caused changes in the platelet metabolism with an inhibitory effect on primary hemostasis.
Glyphosate formulations induce apoptosis and necrosis in human umbilical, embryonic, and placental cells, フランスのカーン大学 (2009年1月)
All Roundup formulations cause total cell death within 24 h, through an inhibition of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity, and necrosis, by release of cytosolic adenylate kinase measuring membrane damage.
A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean: Effects on liver ageing, モデナ・レッジョ・エミリア大学 (2008年11月)
Several proteins belonging to hepatocyte metabolism, stress response, calcium signalling and mitochondria were differentially expressed in GM-fed mice, indicating a more marked expression of senescence markers in comparison to controls. Moreover, hepatocytes of GM-fed mice showed mitochondrial and nuclear modifications indicative of reduced metabolic rate. This study demonstrates that GM soybean intake can influence some liver features during ageing and, although the mechanisms remain unknown, underlines the importance to investigate the long-term consequences of GM-diets and the potential synergistic effects with ageing, xenobiotics and/or stress conditions.
Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis, スウェーデンのルンド大学 (2008年7月)
Glyphosate was associated with a statistically significant increased odds ratio for lymphoma in our study, and the result was strengthened by a tendency to dose-response effect.
Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study, 国立衛生研究所 (2005年2月)
The most consistent ﬁnding in our study was a suggested association between multiple myeloma and glyphosate exposure, based on a small number of cases.
Glyphosate-based pesticides affect cell cycle regulation, ピエール・マリー・キュリー大学 (2004年4月)
All the tested products, Amega, Cargly, Cosmic, and Roundup Biovert induced cell cycle dysfunction. The threshold concentration for induction of cell cycle dysfunction was evaluated for each product and suggests high risk by inhalation for people in the vicinity of the pesticide handling sprayed at 500 to 4000 times higher dose than the cell-cycle adverse concentration.
Pesticide Roundup Provokes Cell Division Dysfunction at the Level of CDK1/Cyclin B Activation, ピエール・マリー・キュリー大学 (Feb 2002)
Roundup affects cell cycle regulation by delaying activation of the CDK1/cyclin B complex, by synergic effect of glyphosate and formulation products. Considering the universality among species of the CDK1/cyclin B regulator, our results question the safety of glyphosate and Roundup on human health.
Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides, アグロパリテック (2015年8月)
In their very first years of adoption, herbicide-tolerant crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides.
Occurrence of glyphosate in water bodies derived from intensive agriculture in a tropical region of southern Mexico,メキシコの南部国境大学 (2015年9月)
Glyphosate was detected in all samples-including natural protected areas. These results emphasize the need for an evaluation of the impact of glyphosate on native species as well as regulate its use.
Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years, ワシントン州立大学 (2012年9月)
Contrary to often-repeated claims that today’s genetically-engineered crops have, and are reducing pesticide use, the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds in herbicide-resistant weed management systems has brought about substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied. Herbicide-resistant crop technology has led to a 239 million kilogram (527 million pound) increase in herbicide use in the United States between 1996 and 2011.
Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay, ウルグアイの共和国大学 (2010年9月)
Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided.
The Lethal Impact of Roundup® on Aquatic and Terrestrial Amphibians, レンセラー工科大学 (2005年8月)
The global decline in amphibian diversity has become an international environmental problem with a multitude of possible causes... Roundup killed 96–100% of larval amphibians, and after one day, Roundup killed 68–86% of juvenile amphibians. These results suggest that Roundup, a compound designed to kill plants, can cause extremely high rates of mortality to amphibians that could lead to population declines.
A common neonicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, impairs honey bee flight ability, ボローニャ大学 (2016年10月)
Pesticides can pose environmental risks, and a common neonicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, decreases homing success in honey bees. Neonicotinoids can alter bee navigation, but we present the first evidence that neonicotinoid exposure alone can impair the physical ability of bees to fly. Such exposure may impair foraging and homing, which are vital to normal colony function and ecosystem services.
Magnesium deficiency in plants: An urgent problem, 浙江科学技術大学 (2016年4月)
Recent studies have shown, surprisingly, that Mg contents in historical cereal seeds have markedly declined over time, and two thirds of people surveyed in developed countries received less than their minimum daily Mg requirement... Magnesium deficiency in plants is becoming an increasingly severe problem with the development of industry and agriculture and the increase in human population.
Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability, スタンフォード大学 (2007年8月)
Discussion: Given that plowed fields erode substantially faster than rates of soil production and natural soil erosion, a limiting lifespan of an agricultural civilization can be estimated by the time needed for conventional agriculture to erode through the native stock of topsoil.
This simple constraint on the lifespan of agricultural soils predicts reasonably well the historical pattern of a 500- to several-thousand-year lifespan for major civilizations around the world, supporting the argument that it was not the axe that cleared forests but the plow that followed that undermined many ancient societies.
Given time, continued soil loss will become a critical problem for global agricultural production under conventional upland farming practices.
No-till agriculture produces erosion rates much closer to soil production rates and therefore could provide a foundation for sustainable agriculture.
Tillage impacts on soil property, runoff, and soil loss variations from a rhodic paleudult under simulated rainfall, アメリカ合衆国農務省 (2003年10月)
No-till plots had 34% to tenfold less runoff than from other tillage systems, while conventional-till plots had 1.5 to 5.4-fold times more soil loss than from other tillage systems
Loss of Magnesium from Soil, カリフォルニア大学 (1957年)
Relatively large losses of magnesium from the soil in the long-term fertility trial plot at Riverside-during a 28-year period-were revealed by analysis of soil samples taken in 1927 and in 1955. The losses of magnesium increased with increase in amount of fertilizers and gypsum added to the soil.
Soil Erosion And Degradation, 世界自然保護基金
Half of the topsoil on the planet has been lost in the last 150 years. In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture. These impacts include compaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation, and soil salinity.
Phosphorus loss, アメリカ農務省
Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is an essential element needed for crop growth. It is a basic building block for compounds that store and transfer energy, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds
Tuned in: plant roots use sound to locate water, 西オーストラリア大学 (2017年5月)
We found that roots were able to locate a water source by sensing the vibrations generated by water moving inside pipes, even in the absence of substrate moisture.
Our results also showed that the presence of noise affected the abilities of roots to perceive and respond correctly to the surrounding soundscape. These findings highlight the urgent need to better understand the ecological role of sound and the consequences of acoustic pollution for plant as well as animal populations.
Physiologically mediated self/non-self discrimination in roots, ワシントン・カーネギー協会 (2004年3月)
Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that self/non-self discrimination exists among roots; its mechanisms, however, are still unclear. We compared the growth of Buchloe dactyloides cuttings that were grown in the presence of neighbors that belonged to the same physiological individual, were separated from each other for variable periods, or originated from adjacent or remote tillers on the same clone. The results demonstrate that B. dactyloides plants are able to differentiate between self and non-self neighbors and develop fewer and shorter roots in the presence of other roots of the same individual. Furthermore, once cuttings that originate from the very same node are separated, they become progressively alienated from each other and eventually relate to each other as genetically alien plants. The results suggest that the observed self/non-self discrimination is mediated by physiological coordination among roots that developed on the same plant rather than allogenetic recognition. The observed physiological coordination is based on an as yet unknown mechanism and has important ecological implications, because it allows the avoidance of competition with self and the allocation of greater resources to alternative functions.